What is a common bile duct cyst
Common bile duct cyst
Under the term Common bile duct cyst one understands a cystic expansion of the extrahepatic biliary tract.
The exact cause of this dilation of the biliary tract is unknown. It is assumed that the excretory duct of the pancreas forms a common canal deviating from the norm with the biliary tract over a short distance. This allows pancreatic secretions to get into the biliary tract and damage the tissue of the ducts. Due to the weakening of the wall structure, even a slightly increased pressure in the biliary tract leads to dilation and ultimately to cyst formation.
The incidence of common bile duct cysts is between 1: 50,000 and 1: 150,000.
The symptoms of common bile duct cysts occur due to complications as a result of cholestasis or the compression of surrounding organs. They express themselves through:
If necessary, the enlarged biliary tract can be felt as an upper abdominal tumor. Minor forms of bile duct cysts can be asymptomatic.
Choledochal cysts are primarily recorded sonographically when symptoms occur or as an incidental finding. As a complementary examination, magnetic resonance imaging or an ERCP can provide additional clarity.
The choledochal cyst is treated surgically, either minimally invasive or laparoscopic, or by laparotomy. The affected, i.e. enlarged, extrahepatic bile ducts, including the gallbladder and its excretory ducts, are removed. New biliary tracts are then modeled from the tissue of the small intestine (hepatic enterostomy).
Elective surgery should be performed as early as possible. Patients with common bile duct cyst have a significantly higher risk of developing malignant tumors of the biliary tract or cholangitis. After 20 years, the risk of malignant degeneration is over 20%.
After the operation, patients can eat normally and lead a normal life.
Inflammatory processes make subsequent surgery more difficult and increase the risk of surgery.
As a late consequence of the operation, there is an increased risk of bile duct stones.
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