How many toilet cubicles are required

WC School toilets

School toilets must be available in sufficient numbers and be quickly and easily accessible. Clean and attractively designed toilet facilities are important for acceptance and use by the students. They can certainly improve the feel-good factor at school and reduce the tendency towards vandalism in the sanitary rooms.

Detached from design aspects, the following criteria are key when planning toilet rooms:

  • How many students and teachers / staff have to be provided with toilets?
  • What is the probability of using the toilets / urinals and hand basins at the same time?
  • Where are barrier-free toilets needed? It must also be taken into account here whether individual areas of the school, such as B. the sports hall or the auditorium should be used separately.
  • Where is or should the toilet facility be located? The following considerations can play a role here:
    • Are they easily accessible from the outside area or the schoolyard?
    • Are there student toilets on every floor where classrooms are located?
    • Are the toilet facilities for teachers located in the vicinity of the teachers' room or the administration wing, and in the case of large school systems also in the vicinity of the lounge or meeting and preparation rooms?
female or male employeesMinimum number with high simultaneity of use
 Toilets / urinalsHand washing facilities
until 521
6 to 1031
11 to 2542
26 to 5062
51 to 7573
76 to 10093
101 to 130114
131 to 160134
161 to 190155
191 to 220176
221 to 250197
 every additional 30 people +2every additional 90 people +2
Based on ASR A 4.1. "Sanitary rooms"

With regard to the dimensioning and equipping of toilet facilities, the specifications from the technical rules for workplaces “Sanitary rooms” are to be used. Due to the limited break times, a high level of simultaneous use should be assumed.

In the case of boys' toilets or toilets for male employees, at least one third must be designed as a toilet and the rest as urinals.

As part of the risk assessment, the hourly toilets can possibly be taken into account when determining the number of toilets, provided that they are accessible and usable during the break times or can also be used during the lesson times due to the organization of the lessons.

There should be at least one disabled toilet per toilet facility. This must be kept available in accordance with the requirements for the barrier-free design of toilet rooms.

When planning and redesigning as well as operating school toilets, hygienic, safety-related and building regulations must always be observed. The following requirements for the condition of the toilet rooms must be observed:

  • The room height in the sanitary room must not be less than 2.5 m.
  • The minimum height of the partition walls and doors of toilet cubicles must not be less than 1.90 m. If the toilet cubicles are not completely separated, a distance of 0.10 to a maximum of 0.15 m between the floor and the lower edge of the partition walls or doors must not be exceeded.
  • The minimum value of the illuminance of the artificial lighting in toilet rooms must be at least 200 lux with a minimum value of the color rendering index Ra 80. It is recommended to provide the mirror lighting with 500 lx.
with cross ventilation 
with one-sided window ventilation 
per toilet1700 cm²
depending on needs1000 cm²
per toilet1000 cm²
depending on needs600 cm²
Based on ASR A 4.1. "Sanitary rooms"
  • The air temperature in toilet rooms must be at least + 21 ° C during the period of use, although ventilation may briefly fall below this.
  • Toilet rooms must have effective ventilation. When ventilating the windows, the following minimum openings must be observed:
  • When using ventilation systems, the exhaust air volume flow must reach at least 11 m³ / (h m²).
  • When using the toilet rooms, there must be no drafts through the ventilation and the exhaust air must not get into other rooms.
  • A toilet room should not contain more than 10 toilet cells and 10 needs stands.
  • Partition walls, doors, windows and needs stands in sanitary rooms must be arranged in such a way that they cannot be seen from the outside.
  • An anteroom is not required if the toilet room only contains one toilet and does not have direct access to a work, break, standby, lying, changing, washing or sanitary room.
  • Floors must have R 10 slip resistance.
  • Floors and walls must be made of a material that can be cleaned with a damp cloth, e.g. B. ceramic tiles, plastics.
  • Toilet cells must be lockable and flush with water.
  • The necessary movement areas must already be observed when planning the toilet rooms or cells. Information on this can be found in the technical rule "Sanitary rooms".
  • Toilets should be hinged to the outside if possible, so that people can be rescued more easily in an emergency, as the door can be opened more easily. In these cases, the toilet cubicles are to be prepared in such a way that there is a free space of 200 mm next to the toilet and in front of it a free movement area of ​​at least 800 mm wide and 600 mm deep.
  • When planning the toilet facilities, it should also be noted that the distance to the toilet must not exceed 100 m. For employees, the route should be shorter than 50 m and no further than one floor away from the individual classrooms. A toilet facility on each floor is recommended for schoolchildren.
  • In toilet facilities with high usage, floor drains (with odor trap) are helpful and should be planned. A floor drain and tap for cleaning purposes should be installed near the urinals.
  • If no separate cleaning agent rooms with cold and hot water taps can be provided for the building cleaning, it is helpful to provide these additionally in toilet rooms or anteroom.
  • Concealed fastenings prevent vandalism.

When equipping toilet rooms, the following should be observed:

  • The toilet cubicles must be equipped with toilet paper, toilet brushes, paper holders and coat hooks. Toilet paper dispensers that are secured with a lock can be useful.
  • A hygiene container with a lid must be provided in every women's toilet. In the case of men's toilets, at least one hygiene container with a lid must be provided in a designated toilet.
  • Corrosion-resistant materials are to be used in wet areas.
  • Low-maintenance, smooth-surfaced and easy-to-clean fittings, preferably chrome-plated, should be installed that save water and energy.
  • Waterless urinals require regular cleaning and care. To this end, the manufacturer's instructions must be observed and the cleaning staff must be instructed accordingly.
  • There must be hand basins and mirrors as well as soap dispensers and disposable towels in the vestibule of toilet rooms. Warm air hand dryers can also be used. Special requirements have to be taken into account for hand wash basins designed to be barrier-free. In terms of successful inclusion, it can be helpful to make all hand wash basins barrier-free.

In the case of a barrier-free design, special requirements for the equipment of hand wash basins must be taken into account.