What are autoclave stones

Definition of building materials. Artificial building materials

Artificially called building materialsMade from natural raw materials, by-products of industry, agriculture or raw materials that are artificially obtained.

Artificial building materials include:
- Stone;
- Materials for walls and partitions (laminated wood and fibreboard, waterproof plywood, layered patch film);
- thermal insulation materials (mineral and glass-cotton panels, foam and sleeve plastics);
- Roofer;
- materials for floors;
- Painting materials (varnishes, enamels, facade and emulsion paints).

Artificial stone materials
This group of building materials includes:
- brick;
- ceramic stones for facing;
- silicate brick;
- concrete slabs;
- concrete blocks.

Brick
Brick is one of the most common building materials. It is made of mineral materials, and to give the stone-like properties it burns or treats it with steam.
The following types of bricks differ:

Construction or ordinary (used for internal rows of masonry or for external rows, followed by plaster of paris);
- Facial treatment (plant, facade, finishing);
- full-time (with a minimum void volume, according to GOST 530-95 less than 13%, is used for masonry of the inner and outer walls, creates columns, pillars and other supporting structures);
- Hollow (with full and unsaturated round, slightly oval, square voids that are more than 13%, is used on Masonry designs without any loads, except for its own weight);
- Silicate (made from sand and lime, after the shape touch of the Autocalaptic processing);
- ceramics (made from clay and their mixtures by molding and then roasting in the oven);
- clinker (continues to burn at high temperatures than ceramic, has high strength and frost resistance, durable);
- shaped (for masonry arches, window sills, fences and other structural elements of complex shape);
- decorative (has a glossy surface, is used to decorate the facades of buildings, the internal masonry of the premises without further decoration of the walls);
- effective (hollow-quality brick with end toes or unserved rectangular or round holes, has reduced thermal conductivity, so using such bricks you can reduce the thickness of the walls, while maintaining their thermal insulation properties);
- Standard (dimensions: 250 x 120 x 65 mm);
- double (dimensions: 250 x 120 x 138 mm);
- one-time (dimensions: 250 x 120 x 88 mm);
- selected (made of clay with the addition of special mineral and organic components, has increased heat-shielding properties);
- Chasen (refractory, withstand temperatures up to 1600 ° C);
- fireplace (made of refractory clays);
- wedge-shaped (refractory, wedge-shaped, used for masonry semicircular arches and arches);
- fence (for building pillars and fences);
- End (with an end face made as a facial).

The brand of brick depends on the strength of compression, is denoted by the letter "M" and the number (the latter carries information about what load 1 cm 3 of the material can withstand). Bricks brands M75, M100, M125, M150, M175, M200, M250, M300 are made.
Depending on the brand, brick is used as follows:

M75 and M100 - to build the walls of a low building (up to 3 floors);
- M125 and above - to build walls of multi-storey buildings;
- M150 and above - for laying in the ground (foundation, base);
- M200-M300 - to build the basics of high-rise buildings.

Brick clay ordinary.
A well-burned adobe brick is red in color if the tapping makes a clean sound. High-quality brick should be the right shape with smooth ribs, without cracks and other defects.
The mud brick has dimensions of 250 x 120 x 65 or 250 x 120 x 88 mm (for bricks with a thickness of 88 mm, it is necessary to have round or slotted technological cavities), three brands are produced: M150, M100 and M75.
This type of brick is recommended to be used for the construction of warehouse walls, where its strength properties are fully used. In other cases, it is more profitable to use hollow bricks.

Brick armel
Hollow brick is obtained by plastic pressing. The single brick has dimensions of 250 x 120 x 65 or 250 x 120 x 88 mm, one-time - 250x120x103 mm.
Four brands are produced: M75, M100, M125, M150.
Two classes of hollow brick differ in terms of volume weight:
- BUT - volume weight is 1300 kg / m 3;
- B-bulk weight is between 1300 and 1450 kg / m 3.
In the event that the volumetric weight of the hollow brick exceeds 1450 kg / m 3, it is assumed to be an ordinary brick.
Hollow brick The semi-dry pressing is usually done with 8 cavities with a diameter of 35 to 45 mm or with 18 cavities with a diameter of 17-18 mm.
Empties can be volatile and non-volatile, their quantity can vary, but the standard of volumetric weight must be followed.

Light brick
Light brick is obtained by molding a mixture of diatomites and clay.
This material has a low level of thermal conductivity, which can vary depending on the volume weight of the brick.
The strength of the light brick is lower compared to the ordinary, much more absorbent moisture.
Depending on the mass weight, there are three classes of light brick:
- A - from 700 to 1000 kg / m 3, with hips of strength 75, 50 and 35;
- B - from 1000 to 1300 kg / m 3 with punches of strength 100, 75 and 50;
- B - from 1300 to 1450 kg / m 3, with thicknesses of 100, 75 and 50 thickness.
Light bricks are used to build both internal and external walls in rooms with normal humidity.
It is impossible to apply it in premises with high humidity.

Silicate brick
Silicate brick according to GOST has the same dimensions as ceramics. They produce both the white and the colored silica brick (the latter is used for face work).
A single and thickened brick can be full and hollow.
Full brick, depending on its density, are divided into:
- porous (with average density up to 1500 kg / mm 3);
- dense (over 1500 kg / m 3).
The industry produces the silica brick carriers 75, 100, 125, 150, 175, 200, 250, 300.
Depending on the purpose, silica brick is also divided into facial and private.

Brick tile
Brick steps 75 and 100 are used to line inner and outer walls. It is possible to do the outer walls at the same time as your erection.
Properties bricks and the bricks are the same as the usual one, they differ only with a smoother homogeneous texture.

Blocks ceramic hollows
Blocks more common bricks in size. In its destination they are divided into blocks for:

Storage walls;
- frame walls;
- partitions.

Wall hollow ceramic blocks have the shape of a rectangular parallel with straight ribs and smooth or corrugated surfaces with through or closed cavities.
They are made of clay with the addition of burning fillers that leave behind closed pores during firing.
As a result, the heat capacity increases and its thermal conductivity decreases.
The voids of the blocks is 25-52%, the density is about 1.5 times less than that of the hollow and 2 times less than the ordinary brick. Due to the porous structure, hollow blocks have a lower mass weight and a lower coefficient of thermal conductivity. The coefficient of thermal conductivity of masonry made of blocks is 4-5 times less than masonry.
Ceramic blocks have large dimensions than ordinary brick (250 x 120 x 140 mm or more). The size of the blocks determines the extent of their use.
Using hollow blocks in construction undoubtedly has advantages:
- increases in labor productivity compared to the construction of similar structures from ordinary bricks;
- reduces the number of seams;
- decreases the flow rate of the masonry solution (2.5-3 times);
- Blocks can be cut, so you can lay out the design of a complex shape from them;
- Reduced burden on the foundation;
- High speeds and heat resistance are guaranteed.
Walls from hollow blocks can be made single, two and three-layer, with insulation and without a lining from brick or plaster from singel.

Silicate brick
In contrast to brick, the silicate brick is only hollow. Cavities have a rounded shape, their diameter is 30-32 mm. The dimensions of the silicate brick are 250 × 120 x 138 mm, which is the size of two bricks.

Stones build concrete and solutions
Concrete bricks convince of strong and light concrete on different binders, they are solid or hollow; Facial or ordinary.
Wall concrete blocks are classified in several signs. In the area of ​​application:

For building foundations and walls;
- for the construction of partitions;
- for the construction of the facade;
- Like thermal insulation for the walls.

By weight:
- usually - weighing up to 32 kg (can be laid manually);
- large (blocks) - weighing at least 500 kg (designed for mechanized laying).

According to material:
- from ordinary and light concrete (light materials, large concrete, etc.) are used as an aggregate, etc.);
- Silicate autoclave bricks (lime sand, lime clay, lime slag, etc.);
- gypsum concrete blocks. By structure:
- solid;
- Hollow (void volume of at least 15%);
- Multi-Layered (consist of a support, heat-insulating and directional layer).

By building the building:
- main stones;
- stones needed for dressing masonry;
- Stones for facing and finishing.

Stonesfloor concrete
This material is used in the construction of enclosing structures and the construction of single or two-story buildings. Floor concrete blocks are made from a mixture of natural soil (sometimes with the addition of sand, lime, clay) and a binder. Stones are made in hydraulic presses under pressure of at least 80 kg / cm 3, then steamed at a temperature of 80-90 ° C and under pressure.
Gross concrete blocks, depending on the strength of four brands: 25, 35, 50 and 75. Cement for manufacture must be a brand not less than 300 for external walls and 200 for internal walls and partitions.
Floor concrete blocks are hollow and full thickness of at least 46 cm for exterior walls and 10 cm for partitions (15 cm for hollow blocks).

Playing game boards
This building material is made of plaster of paris. The panels have grooves and ribs for their more precise and strong docking, the surface is smooth and smooth so you don't have to do additional plastering later. Puzzle panels are intended for assembling partitions, internal non-relaxing walls, internal partitions in rooms and rooms with humidity not more than 70%.
Puzzle panels are of the following types:
- simple (only indoors with dry and normal humidity regime);
- hydrophobized (can be used in wet rooms).
Using puzzle panels has a number of advantages compared to other building materials such as brick:
- panels are easily assembled by gluing;
- You do not need any subsequent formwork;
- Partitions from the puzzle panels immediately after construction, you can paint them with color or bold wallpaper.
- provide good sound insulation;
- Plates can be cut and ground, which facilitates the process of laying electrical wiring and pipes;
- When working with plates, work productivity is significantly increased.

Artificial building materials

Artificial building materials include: bricks (silicate, ceramic), concrete blocks, cinder blocks. Most often, artificial building materials, including burning stone, are preferred because it has certain sizes, which makes the work much easier. Ceramic red stones and bricks are used for masonry both outdoors and in the internal walls of the premises.

Bricks Several types and brands are produced: hollow and full, frost-resistant (brands 15, 25, 35, 50), durable (300, 200, 200, 4, 175, 150, 125, 100, 75), conventional (with dimensions of 250x120x65 mm), thickened (with dimensions of 250 x 120 x 80 mm).

Stones Made by the molding process and are just hollow. Different types of stones have different sizes, for example: more ordinary - 250x120x138 mm, enlarged - 250 x 138 x 138 mm, modular - 288 x 138 x 138 mm.

Silicate white brick Refers to the most common and economical materials. It's bumpy and made from a mixture of quartz sand and lime by pressing with further processing in the autoclave. A modular and single brick is produced, as well as silicate bricks. Individual silica brick is full and hollow (dimensions 250 x 120 x 65 mm). Modular - 250 x 120 x 88 mm, silicate bricks - 250x120x138 mm. Both bricks and modular brick are made only by Hollow.

It is also made Face Silat Brick and Stones . They are unpainted and colored (all the mass is painted or just face edges). The most common colors are blue, greenish, creamy, yellowish, etc. Due to the fact that the silica brick has very low water resistance, it cannot be used if you are laying the foundations and basements below the waterproofing layer. This stone does not apply to masonry smoke pipes and stoves (it does not smell with high heating).

Chamotnoe. yellow brick Two types are produced: refractory and refractory. It has dimensions 250 x 123 x 65 mm and can be used to build any premises. When choosing bricks for construction, it is necessary to make their careful inspection. Invalid cracks and bloating, ribs and incorrect shape.

Concrete wall blocks Can be made from slag concrete and other composite mixes based on cement or lime. It is possible to use them for masonry walls and foundations for the construction of partition walls or for the removal of masonry.

Artificial building materials are mainly made from natural materials. In this case, the final product is different from the raw materials used in its manufacture and physical material has chemical properties. When processing raw materials, various chemical reactions occur that radically change their properties. As an example, you can bring an artificial stone that can all imitate a natural stoneBut it is strong enough and affordable affordable in price.

Natural building materials are just mechanical processing, while all chemical and physical properties are materials. Widely used in construction today natural materials, such as sand, gravel, crushed stone, tree, stone, clay, lime, etc.

Construction use a large number of different materials. For the purpose of building materials it is customary to participate in the following groups:

Binding of building materials (air binders, hydraulic binders). This group includes various types of cement, lime, plaster of paris;

Wall materials - joining structures. This group includes natural stone materials, ceramic and silicate stones, concrete, gypsum and asbestos cement panels, as well as blocks, fencing structures made of glass and silicate cellular and dense concrete, panels and blocks made of reinforced concrete;

Decorative materials and products - ceramic products, as well as products made of architectural and construction glass, plaster of paris, cement, polymer-based, natural finishing stones;

Thermal and sound insulation materials and products - materials and products based on mineral fibers, glass, gypsum, silicate binders and polymers;

Waterproofing and roofing materials ~ materials and products based on polymer, bitumen and other binders, asbestos-cement-slate and tiles;

Waterproofing - in the form of mastic, belts and gaskets for sealing joints of global structures;

Fillers for concrete ~ natural, from sediment and broken rocks in the form of sand and debris (gravel) and artificially porous;

Pieces of sanitary and technical products and pipes - made of metals, ceramics, porcelain, glass, asbestos cement, polymers, reinforced concrete.

The classification of building materials makes it possible to identify the most effective materials, determine their interchangeability, and then correctly assemble the balance of production and material.

Artificial building materials are divided into the main signs of their hardening (formation of structural connections) on:

Burnt materials, which resulted during conventional, relatively low temperatures with the crystallization of neoplasms from solutions, as well as Merkenreifer, whose hardening under autoclave conditions at elevated temperatures (175 ... 200 ° C) and water vapor pressure (0.9 ... 1.6 MPa );

Clamps - materials, the formation of which the structure during their heat treatment occurs mainly due to solid phase transformations and interactions.

The subdivision given is partly conditional, as it is not always possible to determine the clear boundary between the materials.

In conglomerates a bump-type cementitious binder are represented by inorganic, organic, polymeric ways as well as mixed (for example, organic mineral products). Inorganic binders include clinker cements, gypsum, magnesia et al .; to organic-tekal and serious binders and their derivatives; To polymer - thermoplastic and thermosetting polymeric products.

In the conglomerates of the FRATHGE type, the role of the binder is played by ceramics, slag, glass and molten stones.

Organic binders make it possible to obtain conglomerates, characterized: at the temperature of their use in construction - hot, warm and cold asphalt concrete; According to convenience, hard, plastic, cast, etc; In the size of the aggregated particles - large, medium and fine-grained as well as finely dispersed.

Polymer binder - Important components in the manufacture of polymer concrete, structural plastics, fiberglass and others, often referred to as composites.

The classification of artificial building materials (conglomerates), united by a common theory, expands with the advent of new binders, development of new artificial aggregates, new technologies or a significant modernization of existing, new combined structures.

Asbestos cement products

Asbestos cement means artificial stone material that is obtained by solidifying a mixture of cement, water and asbestos. Depending on the type of product, as well as the quality of the asbestos used, the content in the raw material mixture is changed in transactions from 10 to 20%, and portland cement - from 80 to 90%. Flumbing asbestos fiber that wraps with cement stone strengthens it and gives asbestos cement products high strength. Asbestos cement at a relatively small density (1600-20 kg / m 3) has high strength indicators (tensile teeth up to 30 MPa and with compression up to 90 MPa). Asbestos-cement materials do not conduct electricity, do not burn, are frost-resistant, have little water and breathability, but they have increased fragility and with uneven saturation of water can be brewed.

Lime-based products

Products consisting of a mixture of lime, sand and water, shaped and processed by heat moisture autoclave from heat moisture are called silicate. For a long time the only type of silicate building material was a silicate brick for manufacture, the manufacture of which uses quartz sand and air lime. If some of the quartz sand is finely ground, the strength of the products will increase significantly after autoclave hardening, and in this case there is already a silicate concrete in which the binders are a tiny mixture of pumped silica.

Plaster of paris and gypsum-concrete products

Plaster of paris-based products can be obtained from a plaster of paris test; H. From a mixture of plaster of paris and water and from a mixture of plaster of paris, water and aggregates. In the first case, the products in the second gypsum concrete are called gypsum. Kitry for the manufacture of gypsum and gypsum concrete products, depending on their purpose, are building and high-strength gypsum, waterproof gypsum-cement-pozzolan mixtures, as well as anhydrite cements. As aggregates in the Hypsobeton use natural materials - sand, pumice stone, tuff, fuel and metallurgical slag; Lightweight porous aggregates of industrial manufacture - slag pemba, clay-gravel, aglopeoritis, as well as organic aggregates - wood-sawdust, chips, waste paper, stems and fiber-cickens, etc.

Gypsum - planes, therefore gypsum and gypsum concrete products (panels and plates of the partition, panels for floor base, trim panels, ventilation boxes, stones for masonry walls, architectural parts) are mainly used for the internal parts of buildings that do not carry large loads. Gypsum products can be solid and hollow, reinforced and unarmed.

Types of artificial stone materials

Depending on the type of binder, it is distinguished by products based on cement, lime, gypsum. The type of bond and the adopted production method determine the conditions for the curing of debt materials. Curing can occur both under natural conditions and under the conditions of heat magazine processing (steaming or processing in autoclaves).

As aggregates for the production of artificial stone materials, apply quartz sand, pumice stone, slag, ash, wood sawdust. To increase the strength when bending, the product is reinforced with fibrous materials - asbestos and wood.

According to the type of mineral bond, artificial stone products can be divided into four groups: gypsum and gypsum concrete; Products based on Magsian binders; Silicate; Asbestos cement, made on the basis of Portland cement with additive asbestos.

The main stone debugging materials and products include gypsum concrete and gypsum products, silica brick and silicate concrete products, asbestos cement products. In contrast to ceramics, such materials are manufactured at relatively low temperatures. Thus, the temperature of making a silica brick is 170-180 ° C, and the time of the terminus is 10-14 hours, while the ceramic brick is burned at 900-1100 ° C for 24 to 30 hours. Thus, the fuel cost of making silica brick stick, much less than making ceramic. Other types of bumpy stone materials require an even smaller fuel cost. As a rule, however, ceramic materials are more durable and racks for water, aggressive solutions and high temperatures.

output

Artificial building materials and products consist mainly of natural raw materials, less often - of by-products of industry, agriculture or raw materials that are artificially obtained. The building materials produced differ from the original natural raw materials both in structure, and in structure and chemical compositionwhat is related to the root processing of raw materials in the factory conditions with the participation of special equipment and energy costs for this purpose. In the factory process, organic (wood, oil, gas, etc.) and inorganic (minerals, stone, ores, slag, etc.) participate in the raw material, which makes it possible to obtain a diverse range of materials that are used in construction. Certain materials vary widely in composition, internal structure, and quality, but they are interconnected as elements of a single material system.


literature

1. Gorchakov G.I. Bazhenov yu.m. Building materials: textbook for universities. - M: STROYZDAT, 1986.

2. KOMAR A.G. "Building materials and products", Moscow, 1988

3. Building materials. Tutorial for universities / overall. ed. V.g. Mikulsky.-M .: Editor Dr., 1996.

4. Assessment of the quality of the building materials: Tutorial / K.N. Popov, M.B. Kaddo, o.v. Kulkov. -M: ed. Qa.

5. Popov K.n., Kaddo M.B. Building materials and products: textbook / K.N. Popov.m .: High school, 2005

6. Examples and goals for building materials: a textbook / ED. Schubenkina M.n., SKROTEAVA B.G.

To lay the foundation and walls of the garage, you can use different types of building materials. They are divided as follows:

- Natural stone materials (natural stone slices) wrong form: boot, dasane or cut blocks of limestone, sandstone and other rocks);

- Artificial (various types of bricks, blocks of concrete, slag, etc.).

The choice of material for the garage depends on natural conditions, the locality in which construction is planned, and on the type of masonry that will be used for walls and foundations.

The masonry, in turn, is divided into several types:

- brick;

- of ceramic stones;

- from artificial large blocks (concrete, brick);

- from natural stones of the right shape (shawn or trees);

- but (from natural raw stones);

- mixed (from the composition of different materials, such as bay masonry, lined with brick or concrete blocks and bricks);

- Trunk concrete (combination of breast stone and concrete);

- Lightweight (combination of bricks and concrete blocks or other artificial building materials).

Natural building materials

These include natural stone, crush stone, gravel, sand, as well as materials and wood products.

Natural stone - This is a material made of dense sedimentary stock (limestone, sewer, tuff and others). It can be untreated, in the form of cultivated pieces, tiles or small boulders (boat), or sawn, peeled. The brown stone is used as a concrete filler when filling the foundations or filling the interior with a composite (mixed) masonry. It is possible to use it and lay the main walls of the garage. In this case, it is necessary to select clean, smooth stones without bundles, cracks. If necessary, the stones are large (as a rule, their weight does not exceed 30-50 kg in smaller ones.

Squeeze - This is a product for crushing solid rocks or artificial stone materials in the form of small acute angle stones up to 100mm in size. It is used as a great filler for concrete.

Gravel - These are small stones building massive rocks, mainly rounded shape, size 1-10 mm. Gravel is also used as a concrete filler. It is more convenient if you knead manually.

Sand - This loose sedimentary rock, about 50% of which consists of small particles of quartz, polespota and other minerals. Their size ranges from 0.05 to 2 mm. There is also a mixture of clay particles in the sand. It is used as a filler in solutions and concrete.

There are different types of sand: river, lake, sea, mountain and rustling. Mountain sands have a rough surface of grains (grains), due to which they have better adhesion with knitting solutions. The grains of river and sea sand have returned smooth surfaces that often contain fragments of seashells and splashes of limestone. Therefore, for the construction of the garage, it is preferable to use solutions with mining (it is also called construction) sand. Before preparing the solution, it is necessary to sift or rinse sand so that it does not remain more than 5% impurities.

Wood materials and products

Various logs are required to build the garage, rhe, bars, boards, etc. Wood construction materials are measured in cubic meters. Allowed in the construction of the use of alder, linden and other tree species, but the best is pine and spruce.

Lumber They are round, sawn, and crushed. They are used to set up protocol structures in order to receive plates, rails, beams.

To wood Plates, bars, boards, etc. consist of the windows and doors, a thin and thick hub of walls, signs, flooring.

In wood, a distinction is made between plastic, edges, ends and ribs.

boards and brussia There are angular and uncovered. The edges include those boards in which both edges form a straight angle along the entire length or half of the length. The edges are processed or treated no less than halfway.

The billets are bars, boards, bars that are manufactured according to the specified sizes with certain processing allowances and drying. They can be made from wooden leaves and fine needles.

TO tile materialsthese are joinery, chipboard and fibreboard, and plywood.

Plywood is applied to doors, walls, and ceilings. It is made in the form of sheets of various sizes, thickness from 1 to 12 mm, and consists of several layers of veneer.

Carpenters, wood chip and fiber stoves are used as an opposing and thermal insulation material.

Wood chipboard is made by hot pressing of cut chips mixed with binding synthetic resins. They are easily processed manually.

Wood fiber boards are obtained from wood fibers by applying high pressure at high temperatures.

Artificial building materials

These include ceramic, neat, and silat bricks, as well as concrete wall blocks.

Brick can be tone (red); Silicate (white); Chamotes (yellow). By the method of manufacture, a brick is divided into whole and a hole or a hollow. According to design features, it can be single, single and double (Fig. 1).

Cowardly. 1. Types of bricks: A - full-length single ceramic brick; B - ceramic tile with vertical cavities


Red ceramic brickused in any type of masonry, including the construction of the foundation. Its standard dimensions: length - 250 mm, width - 120 mm, thickness - 65 mm. A qualitatively made brick should not be light pink or yellowish colors (insufficient) and melted with molten surfaces (opposite). The directed brick can only be used for laying the foundation. You can check the quality of the red brick as follows: if you hit a hammer, the sound should be clean, ring the bell.

White silica brick It consists of a mixture of lime, water and quartz sand using a dry pressing process. The laying of such bricks (as well as from the ceramic hollow force) is not used in structures with constant contact with water, which are found in raw soils, in wet and wet rooms, as well as in chimneys and drains, wells. Length and width of white brick Same as in red, but different in thickness. Brick can be single (thickness - 65 mm, weight - 3.5 kg) or one-time (thickness - 88 mm, weight is about 5 kg). The third type of silicate brick (double empty) differs significantly in size from the usual type of brick (138 x 120 x 250 mm, weight is 5.7 kg).

Shamal yellow brick There are two types: refractory and refractory. It can be used in all buildings. Dimensions kampffer - 250 x 123 x 65 mm, weight - 3.4 kg (refractory weighs 0.5 kg less).

When choosing bricks for the construction of the garage, you need to pay attention to its quality. Important quality criteria for all types of bricks are the correct shape, smooth, without distortion of the edge, the absence of cracks and deserts.

Concrete wall blocks (or stones) It can be made of cellular concrete, cinder block and other composite mixtures based on cement or lime. Dimensions of wall stones vary. It depends on the design of the device and the types of wall blocks from different manufacturers. With appointment, concrete blocks can be divided into different types: some are intended for masonry walls and foundations, others for masonry (opposite) masonry, others are used for the construction of partitions.

Binding substances

These include cement, lime, plaster of paris, clay, black binders.

cementit is the most common binder for building and concrete solutions, as well as for the manufacture of concrete and reinforced concrete products. It can harden not only in the air but also in water. There are many types of cement, which differ in terms of manufacturing technology, composition, strength, initial punching rates. The most common are portland cement, slagoportland cement, almmating cement. It is also possible to use other grades (rapid hardening, white, color, etc.).

Portland cement is most commonly used as a binder in construction. It has a number of advantages: after solidification, they do not completely dissolve in water, it appears no earlier than 45 minutes after the start of the preparation of the solution and ends no later than 10 hours. Portland cement 400 and 500 are usually found for sale.

The higher the brand of cement, the less it is required to make the solution. Fully hard cement mortar after 28 days. But the withdrawal from this period depends on the percentage of cement in the mix, its brand, weather conditions. It should be remembered that the dry cement actively absorbs moisture, including the air contained in the air, thereby losing strength. Therefore, it should be stored in a dry room, and preferably in tight packaging, which eliminates its contact with the external environment.

If there is no indication of the brand of cement on the bag, it is possible to check its quality as follows: to squeeze the handful of cement in your fist. If it is of good quality, it goes immediately between the fingers, and if it is stored low or long, then small, with peas, lumps will remain in the hand.It can be used in laying non-beam structures, large load, or when filling the foundation and scene. However, it is necessary that such cement should be added more to the solution.

Building limefor the production of masonry, plaster solutions and spins solutions. It happens two ways:

- Air, used as a binder in solutions, which maintains strength at normal humidity;

- Hydraulics, which ensures the solidification and strength of the solution even in water.

The air liming is in turn divided into hairy and negated (hydrate). Its scope - lime (with sand) and mixed (in compositions with other knitting substances) construction solutions that can be used with the same success for plaster and fortunately.

Dims the next coming lime with water. When quenching, you can get a hydrate powder lime (fluff), lime stick and lime milk. Well-being lime absorbs in the amount of at least three times (such lime is called fat). If its volume increased by less than 2.5 times, it is called thin.

Hydraulic lime is weak and highly hydraulic.

It is used in all types of masonry and plaster solutions, as well as concrete. Such lime is best suited for foundation and designs in places with high humidity.

When constructing the garage, only lime counts. Air lime is used for masonry and plaster, which ensures the solidification of solutions and preservation of their strength under the condition of normal humidity. For the foundation and in places with high humidity it is necessary to use the hydraulic lime.

Gypsum construction (alabaster) It is used as an additive in clay and lime solutions to accelerate solidification and increase its strength, as well as in plastering. It is obtained from sediment rock race, the composition includes a two-wheel plaster, which uses frying and grinding. Its positive properties include quick grip, non-flammable, low density, negative power with high humidity.

There are several brands of plaster, which differ in terms of grip and degree of grinding. In the construction of the garage plaster can be used in sand-lime solutions as an additive to increase the strength and acceleration of hardening. The addition of gypsum binder in gypsum solutions results in a layer with greater smoothness and whiteness.

Clay, Old building material that is used as raw materials to manufacture ceramic bricks. In terms of the content in the clay of sand, it is in fat, brave (i.e., medium fat) and thin (loam). It is possible to use clay solutions for waterproofing. Adding clay to cement mortar increases its strength and moisture resistance.

Black binders - This is a bitumen (oil refining product) and various types of tar. These hydrophobic materials (are not wetted with water), waterproof, frost-resistant, as well as elastic and racks for atmospheric phenomena. Therefore, they are used for waterproofing or as an additive for the building solutions. When heated, black binder becomes soft, which can be used to insulate wall seams, cracks, to pour the foundation. Cooling, they are made more viscous and solid. Bitumen and Degti are often used for waterproofing work. If, with heated bitumen, it is followed by a small amount of diesel fuel (diesel fuel), it is more fluid and it is more convenient to make the seam of the roof of the garage or the coating of the foundation walls. One such solution is called "Prime".

It should be remembered that pairs of bitumen and diesel fuel are highly flammable when heated. It should be very careful when the bitumen melts. It is necessary to pull it away from the buildings, which means erasing the price prime.

Mastiki We are divided into bitumen, tar and polymer. They are used as binding substances for gluing rolled roofing materials and sealing roof formations. Polymer materials can also be used to cover the roof.

Construction solutions and concrete

Solutions according to the type of bond are divided as follows:

- cement - on portland cement or other types of cement;

- Limes - air or hydraulic lime;

- plaster of paris - based on plaster of paris binders;

- mixed - on cement and lime compositions; Cement and clay; Lime and gypsum, etc.

If the solution is mounted on a binding mass, then it is simply called on several mixed or complexes. In the recipe, solutions can be divided into masonry (for masonry, wall mounting from concrete structures), finishing (plastering and decorative work.) And special (waterproofing and acoustics).

Choose the type and composition of the building solution. Depends on the type and appointment of the building, as well as the climatic and natural features of the construction site.

During the construction of the garage, it is more convenient to use the usual masonry solution based on cement. It consists of cement (portland cement), sand and water. Water for solutions must not contain any impurities, as they can adversely affect the hardening of binding substances. Ordinary tap water is quite suitable for these purposes.

The composition of the building solution is typically denoted by the ratio of mass or volume of dry source materials. The consumption of the binding material is taken in FIG. Thus, a simple solution in which lime or cement is used as a binder without mineral additives is referred to as 1: 4. This means that one part of the cement should be taken from 4 parts of the sand. If the recipe for a solution of complex and binder in it something or there is mineral additives, then it is denoted by three numbers. For example, to make a universal lime cement solution, you need to take two parts of the haratatl lime, 1 part of the cement and 8 parts of the sand. This is written as follows: 2: 1: 8 (lime: cement: sand).

If a low quality cement is used, the cement content in the solution is used to build up the content of the garage in the solution to the ratio of 1: 3. It is more convenient that he first mix dry cement and sand without water until it becomes a homogeneous structure. Then gradually begin to add water, mix thoroughly, achieve an even stretching of the entire mass without lumps. The consistency of the finished solution is determined by its use and the material from which the construction is carried out: it can be more or less liquid.

Before preparing the solution, it is necessary to enforce the sieve components through the exception of the packaged and ready-to-use people. If construction takes place in winter, then hardening and additives should be used, which will reduce the water freezing temperature (calcium chloride, sodium chloride, sweat, sodium nitrate).

Roofing and insulation materials

These materials are needed in the construction of the roof of the garage and the device of the heating and sealing device. They are divided into soft, hard and mastic.

Soft (rolled) materials

These include Gummioid, Tol, Glassine. They differ in the production technology.

Ruberoid - This is impregnated with bitumen cardboard. It happens whether the roofing, lining and insulation happen. The rooferoid is different from the other types of what has a coarse-grained stone on the outside, and the inside is dusty.

It is used for the top coat. The remaining types of rubber oids are used for the lower layers of the roof and waterproofing.

Tol It differs from ruberoid in that the cardboard is not impregnated with bitumen, but with tar. It is also divided into different types of uses.

GlassineSimilar to the rubber oid and has the same circumference.

Polymer (synthetic) roofing and waterproofing materialsvery varied. They have a number of such positive qualities as water resistance, high weather resistance, waterproof, frost resistance, and elasticity. Polymer materials can be rolled on the shipment and attentively.

Rolled materials for maintenance:

- BIZOL - on a tissue or paper basis;

- Pholoisol - based on the foil;

- Glasizol - the base of a glass cholester is based;

- Hydroizol - based on asbestos.

Domestic rolled materials:

- Waterproofing material based on polyisobutylene (GMP);

- Assembly of polyethylene corner sealing film;

- polyethylene film.

Hard roofing materials

This slate, roof irons, tiles of various types (including metal tiles).

slateit's asbestos cement panels. They are flat and embossed, white and colored. Wavy plates made of the same material are also called slate. This type is more durable than flat. Flat plates can have the following dimensions: sheet thickness - 6, 8, 10 mm, length - from 1200 to 3600 mm, width - from 1200 to 1500 mm. Has wavy slate. standard size 1200 x 680 x 5.5 mm.

Roof iron- This is a thin sheet in the form of sheets with a thickness of 0.35-0.8 mm, length from 710 to 200 mm, wide from 510 to 1000 mm. In addition to conventional iron (the so-called black steel), galvanized roofing steel is produced, which is heavier than 25%.

Metal tile. - This is a new permanent and practical view. roofing material to ensure the reliability of operation in different climatic conditions. Metal tile consists of particularly durable sheet steel, galvanized on both sides and covered with protective layers and plastic. It's 10 times easier for cement-sand tiles (1m2 panels weigh only about 4.5kg). The standard length of the metal tile board is 6m, it has different configuration and color.

Profile bottom - These are galvanized metal-specific profile sheets with a length of 2 to 12 m.

tile It can be of pressed and burnt clay. It is rarely used for a long time due to its high, one-off, heavy weight (1 m 2 weighs 50 to 60 kg and above), which requires high-performance roof structures.

Decoration materials

Materials for plastering.

This type of work will require plaster of paris solutions, paving sign display, putty, nail plaster and other materials.

The choice of plaster solution depends on the surface in which you need to stack. If it's an inner concrete wall then apply lime gypsum, cement lime, lime, lime loam, lime-clay gypsumsolutions.

If the outer walls are placed - stone, concrete or brick, then used lime, cement-clay, cement-limestonesolutions.

For the production of plaster solutions are used fillers, fillers and bonding materials., pigments (dry paint), glue, Water and others.

In its composition and high quality properties fillerswe are divided into natural (gravel, sand) and artificial (sawdust, slag).

Fillers We are divided into natural (clay, limestone, sand) and artificial (domain slag, ash).

As binderapply such materials as liquid glass, polyvinyl acetate dispersions, lime, cement, plaster of paris, etc.

The plaster clamp is made with a thickness of 2 to 5 mm and width of 12 to 30 mm. It is necessary to seal various holes, cracks, etc.

Putty is used to level the surfaces to which it is applied with a spatula or spray gun.

Robe plaster are 30 and 40 mm in length and 1.8-2 mm in thickness.

Materials for painting work

Any fatty composition is used for specific operations. Some are used only with external work, others - with internal, third universal at their destination. To determine the type of color required at the moment, it is necessary to know its composition.

Painting formulations contain binding bases (lime, glue, olives, varnish), fillers, solvents, pigments. In order for the paint to dry faster, there were water-repellent and good decorative properties, sequets, thinners or thinners, hydrobobators contribute to its composition.

The glue is needed to glue the wooden parts, make putty, putty and paints.

Abrasive skins are used to strip surfaces and putty.

Copper power is necessary for the manufacture of civilian primers.

Binding of materials.

So that the colors adhere well to the surface, they formed a solid film after drying, they are processed with a special oil and cellulose, natural resins (amber, rosin), bitumen and asphalt, organic material (casein, bone glue) are injected. Synthetic binders are also used.

To determine the binder that is part of a particular paint, you need to look at the inscription on the can with paint. There must be an index of two letters written next to the name of the color. For example:

- MA - vegetable oil or Olifa;

- F - oil phenol paints;

- GF - Glyphthalic Lacquer;

- NC - cellulose nitrate;

- KO - silicone varnishes;

- PF - pentafthralian;

- PVA - based on polyvinyl acetate;

- Sun - based on vinyl acetate copolymers;

- MCH urea formaldehyde resins;

- AK - on acrylic resins;

- ML - MelaminalQuid resins;

- PVS - based on polyvinyl alcohol;

- ur - based on polyurethanes;

- MS - on melamognostrol resins;

- AU - on alkyd urethane resins.

After the name of the paint on the label, the numbers that can be determined for which the paint is intended are written. Means that they are:

- 1 and 5 - color is used for external and internal work .;

- 2 - only for internal plants;

- 0 - for primers;

- 00 - For putty.

solvent

These are organic substances that have volatility. Use them to increase or decrease the viscosity of varnishes and paints. In rare cases, ordinary water is used for these purposes.

If there is an excess of a sequence in the paint composition, the coating will become fragile despite the rapid drying. The sequences of such brands are produced by the industry:

NF-5, NF-4, NF-2, NF-1.

Turpentine is a colorless or yellowish, reddish, reddish-brown liquid with the smell of resin from conifers. Use it when finishing the surface with oil paints. When the turpentine is cleaned, it speeds up the drying of the paint when the crude oil calls for it.

Gasoline and kerosene are used as solvents for some resins, as well as clean tools, hands, etc.

Acetone is the most optimal solvent for Nitroemals and Nitrobras.

White ghost is a colorless transparent liquid and is used as a solvent for some types of resins and a thinner for nitrobras.

Pigments

Pigments Enter in coloring solutions based on lime, gypsum and portland cement. They are natural and artificial, and have alkali, acid resistance and light resistance.

Pigments are powdery substances of various shades and are divided into mineral (natural) and artificial. Pigments should not be dissolved in water, oil, solvents, should not change color when exposed to direct sunlight, alkali and water.

Sometimes, to make a KEL (varnish composition) of one or another color, you need to use several different pigments.

First, the pigments are soaked in water, mix well and strain through a sieve or a thin tissue, poured into a KEL.

Lime, chalk, beld belong to white pigments. Lime is used to process external and internal surfaces. The tabular lime applies in the form of a test, and the commercial (air) is embarrassed at first, and then diluted with water to milk thickness.

The chalk used as a pigment is white with a yellowish or gray tint and is large lumps or powder. Each of the types of chalk is divided into three types. For Whitames, use a thin-wedrochy melted chalk.

BLIL is divided into zinc, titanium, lithopon, lead, and are a thin fat powder white.

paint

These are solutions of film-forming substances that, hungry, are transformed into a rigid film (colorless or color) on a treated surface. They are used to protect coatings from various types of external influences.

Happiness is divided into several types: oil, alcohol, bituminous, alkyd, alkyd-carbamide, nitrate cellulose, polyester, polyurethane, epoxy, oil polymer.

Most often, oil varnishes will be used for decoration in the garage. Oil varnishes are compounds that are separated from interaction products in organic solvents, vegetable oils with natural or synthetic resins. When drying, transparent yellowish films form.

enamel

Present a mixture of color pigment with varnishes. In the shops are readily sold. If not used for a long time, it's thick. You can dilute them by any solvent. Used to color surfaces in rooms with high humidity.

Enamel GF-230 (Glyphthale) is a general purpose varnish that is only used for internal works. This email generates 21 colors. Before working, it must be dissolved from a solvent. It dries for 1 day, 12 months is stored.

EMALE PF-133 (Pentafhaled) is used to color technical or metal structures in 2 layers. 15 colors are produced. Before use, dilute with solvent, xylene, etc. drying period - 2 hours, shelf life - 5 years.

EMALE PF-115 is used when metal, wood and other structures are exposed to atmospheric influences. 24 colors are carried out. Before use, dilute with white spirit, turpentine or a mixture thereof (1: 1). Applied in 2 levels. Drying period - 8-24 hours, shelf life - 12 months.

EMALE PF-223 is used to process wood and metal structures in interiors. 17 colors are produced. Before use, you need to dilute with xylene, solvent, gasoline solvent. Drying period - 30-36 hours, shelf life - 6 months.

EMALE PF-253 is used for the color of the genital coatings on the primer in 2 layers. Divorced by a turpentine or gasoline solvent. The drying time depends on the thickness of the paint layer and the air temperature in the room.

The enamel FL-254 is produced on a phenolic oil paint and is used for floor painting. Excellence in the qualities of Pentafali enamel.

EMALE PF-14 (white) is specially available for the color of the vertical surfaces (doors, windows). It is applied by ki-stew or roller, does not flow, dries quickly.

Lacquered

These are solutions of pigments and fillers in oil, OLIFE, emulsion. Olifa breeds for outdoor and indoor works. Apply to painting wood, metal and other structures. Depending on the binder color, there are the following brands:

- MA-021 - on a natural OLIFE;

- MA-025 - on the combined OLIFE;

- GF-023 - on the Glyphthawic-Olife;

- PF-024 - on the Pentafhaled-OLIFE.

Colors of two types are produced: Ready to use and dense, bred by Skipidar, White Spirit, Kerosene.

Used in everyday life and water emulsion paints: vinyl acetate - VA with polyvinyl alcohol - aircraft, acrylate - AK, butadiene estrol-KCH. Such colors are bred by hot water before use.