What are the main departments of anthropology

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[235]Anthropogeography. While geography was regarded either as a mere appendage to applied mathematics or as a dry statistical jumble of notes up until the last century, Karl founded it at the beginning of our century Knight a new scientific direction, the ultimate purpose of which was to elevate man himself to the center of geographical research, and to investigate the way in which peoples' life and history are influenced by the geographical conditions to which the individual man and the whole of many people are bound become. The discipline so determined can also be characterized as cultural geography; The name anthropogeography, which must be recognized as a significant one, was created by Friedr. Ratzel, after however [235]earlier Krause [1] wanted an "anthropological geography" to be recognized as a special branch of geography.

According to Ratzel [2], who himself worked diligently and successfully on the young branch of knowledge, it comprises two main departments; one concerns itself with the "doctrine of the factors of the geographical spread of men and their works", the other with the "doctrine of the geographical distribution, form, size of peoples and their states". As a border area between anthropogeography and politico-economic geography, national studies is to be seen, as a border area against history, ethnology is to be seen. So the importance of the location and shape of human residences (continents, peninsulas, islands, mountain forms, plains, steppes, deserts), how the coasts differ from the inland, how currents separate and unite there are examined, just as much depends on the climate and the surrounding organic nature, how the density of the population is based on certain laws, how living spaces are formed under certain natural conditions, how the traffic routes adapt to local and temporal conditions, how finally for that spatially distant occurrence of related tribes that can be found. Ratzel's definition and method have found enthusiastic supporters and staunch opponents; under all circumstances a significant ferment has been brought into science through this [3]. The new edition of his work, which Ratzel had later published [4], elaborates the principles he clarified, in particular by subjecting the young discipline to demographic theory, ethnology and sociology from various angles to the investigation. The determination of the relationship between anthropogeography and ethnology has recently been sought to be more and more precise (5). Ratzel's [6] sharper definition of "political" geography, a discipline of great importance for economists and advanced technicians, has given anthropogeography a concentration that should not be underestimated.

Literature: Krause, K.C.F., Aphorisms for historical geography, edited by Vetter, Berlin 1894, p. 4 ff. - [2] Anthropogeographie, Stuttgart 1882, vol. 1; Vol. 2, ibid. 1892. - [3] Wagner, H., Geographisches Jahrbuch, Gotha 1883, Vol. 9, p. 695 ff .; Gerland, G., contributions to geophysics, Stuttgart 1897, vol. 1, p. 31 ff. - [4] Anthropogeography, 1st part, 2nd edition, Stuttgart 1899. - [5] Günther, goals, guidelines and methods der Moderne Völkerkunde, Stuttgart 1904. - [6] Political Geography, Munich 1897.