Finland has joined the anti-Comintern pact

No. 32 - 1941

December 1

Socialist communications

News for German Socialists in England

This newsletter is published for the information of Social Democratic
refugees from Germany who are opposing dictatorship of any kind.

[Page 1 - ]

The counter-thrust

In North Africa, the British Army has launched a counter-attack against the military might of the Axis. The German armored troops that had been standing on the Egyptian border for months have been surrounded. The heroes of Tobruk, who had held this coastal place for a long time against all attacks by the German-Italian besiegers, were able to unite with their comrades-in-arms advancing from the east. The desert battle is still looming, the outcome of which will determine whether Mussolini will lose Libya and Tripoli after Eritrea, Somaliland and Abyssinia and whether the threat to the Suez Canal from the west will be finally eliminated. It is still too early to speak of a victory. But it is already clear today the great importance of this offensive, well prepared by fleet operations, tank and aircraft concentration, adapted to the actual requirements of today's warfare.

It came at a time when Hitler's Russian campaign had reached its critical stage. Even after more than five months, neither Leningrad nor Moscow have been conquered. The "last battle of the year"[1], as Hitler called the struggle for Moscow, continues. And although the advance on the Black Sea led to the occupation of Crimea, it evidently suffered a setback near Rostov and has not yet achieved the desired goal of the Caucasian oil fields. So, without "winter quarters", without having destroyed the great booty of fuel and without having destroyed the Red Army, Hitler's armies find themselves in that Russian winter before which Napoleon's Great Army had to withdraw. If Hitler's armies do not follow Napoleon's example, the millions in losses they have already suffered will become

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have hundreds of thousands of frozen and starved people to come before the planned new offensive can begin next spring.

It remains to be seen what repercussions the costly postponement of the Russian campaign will have on the exhausted armies of Hitler and on the peoples ruled by him and his allies.

The Czechoslovak President Dr. Benes has expressed the conviction that signs of disintegration are already noticeable in Germany and that this winter will be the last winter of war that Germany will be able to survive. And Stalin spoke of the fact that the war could last a few more months, at most a year. No one can say with certainty whether these predictions will come true or whether the assumption made by the British and American governments, who seem to anticipate the decision in 1943, is feasible. But all of these estimates can be taken as an encouraging sign that the military and political situation of the Hitler regime and its allies has become more critical than ever before.

Of course, attempts are still being made to keep the oppressed peoples under their spell with the display of a world coalition united under Hitler for the crusade against Bolshevism. But Ribbentrop's Berlin Congress to renew the mendacious anti-Comintern pact[2] only offered new things to those who actually believed that fascism, dictatorship, conquest and betrayal were a purely German problem. Unfortunately, they are a world problem that can only be solved as such. But as sad as it is that the Finnish government and a Danish representative took part in the Berlin theater, it is so gratifying that Sweden and Switzerland, Portugal and Turkey had the courage to stay away from the event - and that the Vichy government apparently wasn't even invited.

But the Vichy men still seem ready to help Hitler in North Africa. You have recalled General Weygand[3]who - out of reactionary prejudice - contributed to the collapse of France, but is not "reliable" in Hitler's sense. And it looks like it should use Morocco and Tunis as a base and refuge

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for the Axis troops threatened by the British counter-attack in North Africa.

Hitler and Mussolini can expect even more from Japan, whose game of threats and negotiations is now coming to an end. Whatever happens, an advance into Siam or Burma, Siberia or the Philippines - the United States will have to decide to counter-attack. The political and economic future of East Asia and the distribution of power in the Pacific are at stake, and America will understand that the threat posed by a Japan allied with Hitler is more serious than any discussion of the right to strike and neutrality.

As long as Singapore is in British hands, the Dutch South Sea Islands are allies of England and China continues the fight against Japan, a conflict between Japan and the USA can be life-threatening for Hitler's Far Eastern allies. The counter-attack that is carried out against him can, if carried out with united forces, become a fatal blow.




[Event notice]

The German department of the International Solidarity Fund organizes

a chamber concert

followed by a social get-together

on Saturday, d. December 20, afternoons [mondays] 2.30 [am] (admission 2.00 [am])
in the Reception Hall of Bloomsbury House (on the ground floor),
Bloomsbury Street, London, WC 1.

Tickets for the price of 6 d can be ordered in room 64, Bloomsbury House. Light refreshments will be available at the event at moderate prices.

A warm welcome to friends and guests!

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Funeral service for Hilferding in New York

As we can see in the "Neue Volkszeitung" New York, a funeral service for Rudolf Hilferding took place in the New York Rand School, in which the entire political emigration in New York, Germans, Austrians and Russians, took part. Prof. Albert Salomon spoke at the funeral service[4]Hedwig Wachenheim, who was Hilferding's employee for many years at the magazine of the Social Democratic party executive "Die Gesellschaft"[5], former social democratic member of the Reichstag, Julius Deutsch, the former leader of the Austrian Schutzbund, the Russian social democrat Raphael Abramowitsch and the director of the Rand School, Algernon Lee.

The funeral service was organized by the Social Democratic Federation, the German Labor Delegation and the International Socialist Club.

German Freedom Council in the USA

In New York there is a "German-American Council for the Liberation of Germany from Nazism"[6] was founded, whose board of directors was the former Prussian Interior Minister Alb [ert] Grzesinski as chairman, Dr. Horst Bärensprung, Dr. W. Thormann[7] and Dr. Rudolf Katz (as secretary) belong.

Members of the executive committee include: Siegfried Aufhäuser, Dr. Eugene Bandmann[8], Georg Bernhard[9], Dr. Alfred Braunthal[10], Dr. Friedrich Wilhelm Foerster[11], Robert Grötzsch, Dr. Ernst Hamburger[12], Anna Geyer[13], Marie Juchacz[14], H.W. cat[15], Dr. Alwin Kronacher[16], Dr. Carl Landauer[17], Dr. Carl Misch[18], Gerhart Seger, Toni Sender, Friedrich Stampfer, Fritz Tejessy and Dr. Herbert Weichmann[19].

November celebrations in London

The national group of German trade unionists held a commemoration on November 9th in London. In a retrospective, Gen. Gott [fear] paid tribute to the tendencies and forces that were progressive and inhibiting in the days of November 1918 and in the period of the German republic, and he pointed to the lessons learned from the experiment of the first democratic self-government in Germany People are to be drawn for the future. Comrade Weckel issued a warning

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Discussion on keeping alive the spirit that alone can make revolutions and evolutions successful. -

On November 12th, the Austrian Socialists held a commemoration ceremony for the founding of the Austrian Republic in Conway Hall in London.[20]

The keynote address was given by Oskar Pollak, who recalled the achievements of the Viennese workers and their struggles against international fascism.[21]

In his address, Noel Baker, M.P., remembered the strong impressions he and comrades of many other nations had received from the Austrian labor movement; He described the foreign policy links that led to the fall of Austrian and Sudeten German workers' freedom, and he appealed to the spirit of international solidarity in the pursuit of a better future. A large number of Reich German and Sudeten German Social Democrats took part in the celebration.

Another rally of the Austrian socialists on November 23 was dedicated to international solidarity at the Louis Lévy (France), Arne Ording[22] (Norway), Comrade Ciolkosz[23] (Poland) and Oskar Pollak spoke.

Discussion about the pioneers

Recently, in connection with proposals to set up an "International Brigade" or a "Free German Brigade" in England, a discussion about the pioneers has started. The weekly New Statesman and Nation published a letter on November 1 from a pioneer who advocated leaving the pioneers with the British Army for which they had volunteered.

On November 24th appeared in the "Times"[24] a letter from H.M. Carleton Greene[25], which refers to the many laudatory reports in the English press about the foreign pioneers. Then it says in the letter:

"It is stated that these men, German and Austrian refugees, are in every way viewed as British soldiers. But on one important point their position is not the same.

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In British formations, promotion is on merit. In the foreign companies it is limited to one man per company and, at the moment, to subordinate ranks. "

The letter writer refers to the Germans and Austrians in the engineer corps who were educated in British schools, who have successfully completed an officer training and who now have no opportunity to serve in the regular army with their former classmates. Finally, he recalls the engineers and technicians in the pioneer corps and raises the question of whether it is useful to employ such people with unskilled work.

To support England's war effort ...

One of our comrades, who was interned in Australia and was recently put on a transport back to England, sent us a letter shortly before his departure, from which we learn:

"... It is my firm conviction that everyone who wants freedom and humanity for himself must fight against Nazism and is needed in every way. That is why I have registered for the Pioneer Corps and hope to be accepted ... The government now pays small wages for certain jobs here, and that is a great help for people who really don't have a penny. I have only one wish: to get permission soon to support England's war effort. That is the main thing. Best wishes to you and all comrades and friends ... "

- . - . - . - . - . -

Some 400 internees were sent to England for release from Australia a few weeks ago. The arrival of the transport is expected shortly. As these lines are being written, only one of the Socialists supported by the International Solidarity Fund is left on the Isle of Man. His release under Clause 19 of the White Paper is expected daily. -

Our self-help for the internees was able to distribute an amount of around £ 310.00 to the interned socialists and trade unionists through money collections.

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Hans Vogel to the workforce in Germany

On the occasion of November 9th, the [! ] BBC in London some programs in German to Germany, including a speech by our comrade Hans Vogel, which was broadcast four times on November 9th and 10th. We could hear the following words:

"On November 9th, 1918 the Kaiserreich collapsed and Germany became a republic. The Kaiserreich collapsed because it had led the German people into a war against the whole world, which was already lost when it began.

On September 29, 1918, the Supreme Army Command demanded an immediate armistice and peace. The defeat was not a result of the revolution. It was already there when the revolution began. Again, Germany, misled by a false, night-wandering leader and a generals who complied with him, stands against the whole world.

Churchill and Roosevelt's Atlantic Charter shows that after this war there is also room and space for a defeated Germany within the framework of international cooperation for economic and social security of all peoples and every individual, for freedom, justice and lasting peace.

The prerequisite for this, however, is that Germany creates order in its own home. The weaknesses and inadequacies of the November Revolution and the Weimar Republic should not be repeated. You have the enemies of the republic and [! ] facilitates their later game.

Germany herself must play a decisive role in securing a lasting peace and in understanding, happier cooperation with other peoples. A deep democratic upheaval is necessary in Germany.

This time it must not stop at the social reactionary strata who brought Hitler to power and who are responsible for the current misfortune: the big landowners, the chimney barons and

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Bankers.

These strata have always feared and hated the German working class, and the German working class has the historical task of finally breaking its power after the first great opportunity in 1918 was missed.

Hitler tries again and again to convince you that the November Revolution is a unique event in the history of Germany that will never be repeated. But the German workers cannot and will not in the long run make themselves jointly responsible for the crimes of their own executioners, for the Gestapo hostage murders, for the systematic extermination of entire tribes and races that have united the whole civilized world against Germany and isolated the German people .

I would like to address a special word to you, my friends from the former free labor movement.

Your - our - movement once held a highly respected position within the international labor movement. People looked with admiration at your organizations, at their achievements and successes, at your goals and at your solidarity. Today the workers of the world look to you again, a great responsibility rests on your shoulders!

November 9th! Legacy, Pledge, and Fulfillment!

Nazi Germany must die so that a democratic and liberal, that is, a truly socialist Germany, can arise and the world can live in peace and prosperity. Freedom!"

Pamphlets on world politics

is the name of a series of short treatises on world problems published by Oxford University Press and written by leading historians, lawyers and economists. One of these ribbons in German Language (price 6 d) we deliver to our party members in England with the present number of the SM. It is about "Rasse" in Europa, a font based on excerpts from the book "We Europeans" by Julian Huxely and A.C. Haddon[26] based.

Anyone who can send us a contribution towards expenses may do so, we have no fund for agitation purposes!

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Our blacklist

Below we publish a small "portrait" of the criminal secretary Krüger. It's on our blacklist. He is one of those, of the many, who are no longer allowed to have a place in a Germany after Hitler.

We are preparing this blacklist. For this we need the cooperation of all of our friends. We ask you to send us all material about Gestapo officials, SS and SA people, members of the NSDAP and affiliated organizations that is suitable for our blacklist. We need all factual information: names, addresses, description, occupation, occupation - and a description of their crimes. Personal memories of own or other experiences, transmission (possibly on loan) of newspaper clippings, references to other publications.

Everyone can help. Let's complete our blacklist together.

Criminal Secretary Kruger

In the Hamburg town hall, on the fourth floor of the old building, there is criminal secretary Krüger. He is still young, around thirty, and there is still no gray streak in his black hair. He is very large and of a strong stature.

For years, since Hitler came to power, he has "interrogated" Social Democrats. He is one of Himmler's people. He and his kind work in groups of two and three in the "SPD" inspection of the Gestapo. He comes into function when other methods fail, when his colleagues fail. He kicks and hits immediately. He is constantly mistreating those arrested.It is he who "wipes out" men and women. So are his interrogation methods:

"I was called and the interrogation began again. I denied everything again. Kruger came into the room, walked up to me and threw a lit cigarette in my face. He lit a new one and then threw the match in my face . He yelled, 'You pig, can't you report?'

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I reported. He slapped me on the left and right and took me into the other room, in which 7 other Gestapo people were staying. I was supposed to do 200 squats and lift up and down a large ram, on which a heavy book would soon be placed. Soon I couldn't go on, and the Gestapo people who formed a circle around me made fun of me because I was sweating.

I felt sick and asked for a glass of water. Kruger: 'Are you cheeky too? Do you want water? I'll put glue down your throat! ' Kruger and others fell on me, hit me with their fists, kicked me in the stomach and finally hit the back of my head with a ruler, so that two fresh scars popped open again. When the blood ran down my neck, they stopped. I had to stand in a corner, facing the wall. During the hour and a half that I stood there, they kept throwing books at me ... "

This is Kruger. That's one of the kind. Many Social Democrats have - literally - passed through his hands. Young and old, men and women.

He has brought endless suffering and some "deaths" are his account.

Year after year the inspection: "SPD" in the Hamburg Gestapo tortured illegal fighters and "delivered" them to the court or the concentration camp.

They spat on and beat them, just as they mistreat and kill the righteous in enslaved countries today. They will not convince either of them or of the others. But they will teach them to hate.

We don't know where this Kruger will be sitting today. Whether he is still in the department: "SPD" in the Hamburg town hall, or whether he is promoted and transferred.

Whether he is a worker in Norway or Belgium today, whether he is a citizen in Holland or France, whether he beats, kicks and murders farmers in Poland or Yugoslavia.

But we know one thing: there is no room for him or his kind on this earth. This criminal secretary and his kind are the plague of this time. You should pay for it. You will hang!

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A conference of the International Labor Office,

which moved from Geneva to Montreal, Canada some time ago, began in New York on October 27th.

160 delegates from 33 countries attended the conference. The ITUC was through its General Secretary Walter Schevenels, the British Government through C.R. Attlee, Labor Party Leader and Lord Seal Keeper, represented in the Churchill Cabinet. The Mayor of New York, La Guardia[27], and Miss Perkins[28], US Secretary of Labor, gave welcome addresses. Miss Perkins stressed the need to develop natural wealth in such a way as to ensure a good standard of living for all peoples. The problem in the post-war period will be increased production and better distribution. Public health, nutrition and housing will be the main interests. In his closing address to the conference, President Roosevelt issued a warning to the world's working class, in which he pointed out the need to fight the Hitler dictatorship and fascist oppression and called for international cooperation.

The main focus of the conference was on post-war problems: reconstruction, cooperation on a European and global scale, food security, epidemic avoidance, etc.

UK trade union delegation chairman George Gibson stressed the need to win the war before post-war problems can be resolved for the benefit of the workers.

Special commissions were formed to work through the individual problems. At the request of the International Federation of Transport Workers, a special office for transport issues was set up. Mr. Phelan[29] the former acting director of the International Labor Office, who had submitted a work plan for the further activities of this important international institution, was appointed full director.

A Czechoslovak Trade Union Center,

which is based at Transport House, London, SW1, was recently created. The chairman is Gen. Stolz, secretaries Gen. J. Kosina[30] and Dr. Rooster[31].

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Letter to the Editor

We received the following letter from Bertha L. Bracey[32], General Secretary, Germany Emergency Committee (Society of Friends):

"Dear Sirs,
may I draw your attention to two errors in your issue of November 1, 1941.
p.6. Your statement about the amount of post-war credit in relation to income tax is not correct in the general terms in which you state it.
p.19. Miss Baverstock[33] has taken Mr. Martin's place in the Central Office for Refugees. Mr. Simpson has become Administrative Officer on behalf of the Bloomsbury House management (since the Christian Council are the leasers of Bloomsbury House) where Francis Bendit[34] is Secretary to the Central Committee for Refugees.
p.19. Very few of the men brought back from Canada for release are still in the Isle of Man. "

Our readers will be pleased to learn from Miss Bracey's letter that the majority of internees returned from Canada has been released since our last newsletter was written.

We regret that limitation of space prevented us from giving the complicated details with regard to income tax and post-war credit and the full details of the personal changes at Bloomsbury House.

The Home Office Tribunal,

which, under the chairmanship of the well-known international lawyer Sir Cecil Hurst, deals with the consultation of applications for the release of internees according to category 19 of the second white book (Cmd. 6223), now, as we learn, also deals with applications according to category 19, who were placed by internees, which to Submit the application other reasons (e.g. illness, old age, important employment in industry, agriculture, forestry or in refugee aid committees or special circumstances) have been released from internment before their release has been decided under Category 19.

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The Events of 1941 as seen in the SM

The following are quotations, translated from leading articles on political events, published in the "Sozialistische Mitteilungen" in the course of this year.

Was over the world

"Clouds gather in the Balkans, since the Nazi Army has settled in Rumania and has apparently invaded Bulgaria, from where an attack on Greece may be made ... In the Far East, Japan seems to be preparing to join the war on the side of the Axis, in spite of all peace declarations ... There are still people who believe that this is a war for or against certain nations or a war about territories and colonies. They are mistaken. Far more is at stake: this is a war between dictatorship and democracy, and the military successes of dictatorship in the first year of war will be checked, in the long run, by the democracies finding allies in the countries ruled by dictatorships. "

(SM No. 23, 1.3.1941)

The Lease Lend Bill

"The approval of this bill was one of the most important decisions in this war. Hereby, the United States have irrevocably abandoned their neutrality in the struggle between dictatorship and democracy; they have taken sides with British resistance, and made themselves the arsenal and store of fighting democracy ... In comparison, the 'neutrality' of the Soviet Union appears in a really poor light. It is a twilight, causing the most different expectations, because Moscow's policy is leading the Soviet Union into a more and more dangerous position ... Hitler's offensive at his newly created Eastern front is to be expected, after all that has happened. "

(SM No. 24, March 30, 1941)

The Eastward Drive

"The eastward drive has induced Hitler to abandon his dogma of war on one front only, and to send his armies to the theaters of Mussolini's defeats: to the Balkan mountains, where an advance into Asia Minor will be tried, and to the Libya desert , where an attack is directed against Egypt and the Suez Canal. But eastward - over the Atlantic - American help will come to Britain and the British troops

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in the Near East. Eastward - over the North Sea - the RAF will direct their attacks on the centers of German war industry again and again. Eastward - against Japan - the people of China will carry on their defensive war. "

(SM No. 25, April 30, 1941)

The great expansion

"Hitler's great expansion is leading to incalculable consequences. He has had to warn the German people that the war will not end this year, as previously promised ... Even Hitler's subjects must realize that the adversary is not conquered by driving the British from the Continent that the ring is not broken, and the war not won. "

(SM No. 26, May 30, 1941)

The Invasion of Soviet-Russia

"From the Arctic to the Black Sea the world's strongest armies are locked in battle ... If they exhaust each other in long battles, the peoples of the Continent may be relieved from the pressure, and the power of British and American Democracy can become the dominant factor in politically re-shaping the world. "

(SM No. 27, June 30, 1941)

The Atlantic Charter

"Anyone still asking for the meaning and aim of this big struggle, has been answered by the great and noble declaration made by Churchill and Roosevelt at their Atlantic meeting. Here, it has been made clear that the territorial gains or economic advantages are not the issue, but the victory of democracy willing to secure, for the peoples of the world, a just order and a peaceful life, free from hatred and want, and safe against a resurrection of the murderous movement which is responsible for this war. "

(SM No. 29, September 1, 1941)

The Russian Crisis

"Doubtless, the Russian campaign will lead Hitler's armies into a critical situation, and demand sacrifices which can be hardly replaced ... In the coming spring, the invaders may still hope to create a situation where it will be impossible for Soviet-Russia to renew its resistance against a big offensive, for want of material. It will depend on the possibility of assistance from the USA and the British Empire, whether this hope of Hitler will come true. The position of the British armies in North Africa and Asia will enable them to carry out more decisive actions than adventures in the West. "

(SM No. 31, November 1, 1941)

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The foreigner problem in the USA

We learn from one of our friends in the USA that the American Parliament is preparing a new law on foreigners, the draft of which ("Hobbs Bill")[35] has been advising in Parliament's Legal Affairs Committee since July.

The draft law is based on the premise that the deportation of undesirable foreigners is not possible during the war and must be replaced by internment. Internment, originally intended for all foreigners in the event of war, is now to take place on the orders of the Attorney General.

The internees should be given an opportunity to appeal. A board of supervision of deportable aliens is to be set up for this purpose. Internment for up to 5 months can be ordered without the approval of the Board. If the foreigner confesses or is convicted of violating the law, imprisonment can last for up to 15 months. Internment can be ordered for an indefinite period of convictions and criminals.

For loyal Foreigners should be made easier, even if they immigrated illegally to the United States at the time and could therefore be deported. Such foreigners may not be deported or interned if they were demonstrably useful for five years during their seven-year stay in the USA or if they enabled a legal foreigner to exist. On the other hand, severe measures are planned against foreigners who have carried out anti-state activities on behalf of a foreign government or a foreign party.

Special provisions are made for the many refugees who came to the USA as "visitors" (like many of our comrades and friends from France!) And are therefore not allowed to work. According to the proposed law, these refugees can be legalized if they immigrated before January 1, 1941, are impeccable and adhere to the principles of the American Constitution, have complied with their registration requirements and can provide credible evidence that they will be in their homeland would be subject to racial, religious or political persecution.

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[Hints]

"Sweden and the War",

Gen. Ernst Paul - Prague speaks on this subject

Saturday, d. December 13 [ember], after 3:30 am [noon]
in Westbourne Terrace 128, London, W2 (Paddington)

The speaker recently arrived from Stockholm, where he was in close contact with comrades in the other Scandinavian countries. Guests are welcome!
From 2 O `clock In the same pub, get-togethers with musical entertainment, coffee, cake and sandwiches are available between 2 a.m. and 3:30 a.m. at reasonable prices.



The German department of the International Solidarity Fund For financial reasons, she is forced to make the following changes to her management:

The office (previously room 62) is immediately merged with that of the Austrian department in room 64 of Bloomsbury House. Office hours of the German department are:

Tuesday mornings from 10 a.m. to 1 a.m. and
Friday, in the afternoon from 1 to 4 a.m.

Since the Austrian department has separate office hours in the same room (in which the correspondence of both departments must also be dealt with), we ask you to strictly adhere to the office hours and only make visits when it is really urgent Cases. Since our office expenses are no longer reimbursed, we appeal to our friends to include return postage to all letters to which they expect a response.



To our readers!

In the past few months, 620 copies of the SM have been sent, 433 deposits from our readers brought us an income of £ 132.10, while our expenses for this period were £ 135. There is a shortfall of sh 50 / -. Readers who have not yet made a contribution are asked to do so! Rising prices and a shortage of paper force us to be thrifty. We can therefore only send the SM to paying readers from January. The costs including postage are sh 1 / - per quarter or sh 4 / - or 1 dollar per year. We would like to thank all friends and readers for their help so far.



Issued by the London Representative of the German Social
Democratic Party, 33, Fernside Avenue, London NW7.






Editorial notes


1 - From Hitler's daily order to the "soldiers of the Eastern Front" of October 2, 1941: "Today is the beginning of the last great decisive battle of this year." Before the onset of winter, Hitler said the enemy was to be crushed with one last, powerful blow.

2 - On November 25, 1941.

3 - Weygand allegedly retired on November 20, 1941.

4 - Albert Salomon (1891 - 1966), German sociologist, 1928-1931 collaboration on "Die Gesellschaft", exile in Switzerland from 1933, in the USA from 1935, expatriated in 1940.

5 - Hedwig Wachenheim (1891-1969), social democratic politician, 1928-1933 MdL Prussia, 1919-1933 member of the main committee of the AWO, from 1933 exile in France, from 1935 in the USA Cf. Hedwig Wachenheim: From the upper middle class to social democracy. Memoirs of a reformist, Berlin 1973.

6 - On November 29, 1941 the Association of Free Germans emerged from the Council, which was almost identical to the Council in terms of membership. In March 1943, "Aufbau" called it the most authoritative among the German groups in exile in the USA. Cf. Joachim Radkau: The German Emigration in the USA. Your Influence on American European Policy 1933-1945, Düsseldorf 1971.

7 - Werner Thormann (born 1894), German journalist, exile in France from 1933, expatriated in 1937, USA from 1940; Employee on German-speaking radio broadcasts.

8 - Eugen Bandmann (1874 - 1948), lawyer and social democratic politician, exile in the CSR from 1933, expatriated in 1937, in the USA from 1938.

9 - Georg Bernhard (1875-1944), German left-liberal journalist and economic politician, 1928-1930 DDP-MdR, exile in France from 1933, expatriated in 1933, in the USA from 1941.

10 - Alfred Braunthal (1897-1980), Austrian social democrat, trade unionist and social scientist, 1921-1928 employee / head of the SPD-affiliated Heimvolkshochschule Tinz, exile in Belgium from 1933, in the USA from 1936.

11 - Friedrich Wilhelm Foerster (1869 - 1966), German philosophy professor and journalist, exile in France from 1933, expatriated in 1933, USA in 1940, in Switzerland since 1963.

12 - Ernst Hamburger (1890-1980), German Social Democrat, MdL Prussia 1924-1933, exile in France from 1933, in the USA from 1940, expatriated the same year. Since 1962 board member of the Leo Baeck Institute (New York).

13 - Anna Geyer (1893 - 1973), left-wing journalist and party functionary, first wife of Curt Geyer (see SM 27, end of June 1941, note 9), memberships in the USPD, KPD and ultimately the SPD, from 1933 exile in the CSR, Expatriated in 1936, France in 1937, USA from 1940.

14 - Marie Juchacz, b.Gohlke (1879 - 1956), initially employed as a domestic worker, factory worker, nurse and seamstress, member of the SPD since 1908, central women's secretary of the SPD from 1917 and member of the PV, 1919-1933 SPD-MdNV and MdR, 1919 founder of the Arbeiterwohlfahrt ( AWO), exile 1933 Saar area, 1935 France, 1941 USA, 1942 expatriation (in the "Deutsche Reichsanzeiger und Preußischen Staatsanzeiger" of 25.9.1942, list 278, the name is reproduced as follows: "Juchaez, Marie Luise, nee Gahile, geb. on March 15, 1879 in Landsberg / Warthe "), in exile and others active in refugee welfare and in the social policy field. At the beginning of 1949 he returned to Germany, again active in the AWO (honorary chairwoman) and the SPD women's movement.

15 - Herz Wolff (later Henry William) Katz (born 1906), German-speaking writer and publicist, until 1933 editor of "Die Welt am Montag" (Berlin), from 1933 exile in France, 1941 USA.

16 - Alwin Kronacher (1880 - 1951), German director and journalist, exile in Switzerland from 1933, France 1934, USA 1939, expatriated the same year.

17 - Carl Landauer (born 1891), German social democrat and economist, exile in the USA from 1933, expatriated in 1940.

18 - Carl Misch (1896-1962), German historian and journalist, exile in France from 1934, expatriated in 1937, in the USA from 1940. After returning home, worked on German newspapers.

19 - Herbert Weichmann (1896 - 1983), German social democratic politician, personal advisor to Otto Braun until 1932/33, exile in France from 1933, expatriated in 1939, USA in 1940. 1948 return to Germany, 1965-1971 first mayor of Hamburg.

20 - 12.11.1918: Adoption of the law on the form of government in German-Austria by the German-Austrian National Assembly.

21 - Among other things, the uprising of the Austrian workers against the Dollfuss regime in February 1934.

22 - Arne Ording (1898-1967), Norwegian historian and politician, foreign policy advisor to the Norwegian government in exile.

23 - Adam Ciolkosz (1901-1978), social democratic politician and writer.

24 - "Times", conservative daily newspaper, has been published in London since 1788.

25 - Hugh M. Carleton Greene (1910-1987), British radio journalist, 1940-1946 head of the BBC's German service, 1946-1948 "Controller of Broadcasting" in the British zone of occupation, had a decisive influence on the establishment of the NWDR, again from 1949 onwards BBC.

26 - Julian Huxley: "Race" in Europe. Pamphlets on world politics, Oxford 1941. Julian Huxley, A. C. Haddon, A. M. Carr-Saunders: We Europeans. A Survey of "Racial" Problems, Harmondsworth 1939.
Julian S. Huxley (1887-1975), see SM 45, Anf. Jan. 1943, note 10.
Alfred Cort Haddon (1855-1940) British ethnologist. Alexander Morris Carr-Saunders (born 1886), British social scientist.

27 - Fiorello La Guardia (1882-1947), US politician (Republican), 1934-1945 Mayor of New York, 1946 head of UNRRA.

28 - Frances Perkins (1882-1965), US politician (Democrat), US Secretary of Labor 1933-1945.

29 - Edward Joseph Phelan (born 1888) Irish trade unionist, IAA general manager 1941-1948.

30 - Josef Kosina (born 1900), Czech socialist and trade union official, exile in Great Britain, 1942-1962 employee of the BBC.

31 - Otto Hahn (1885-1946), Sudeten German trade unionist and social democrat, exile in Great Britain from 1938.

32 - No biographical information could be determined for Bertha L. Bracey.

33 - No biographical information could be found on Miss Baverstock.

34 - No biographical information could be found on Francis Bendit.

35 - No information could be found on Hobbs-Bill. It could be named after the Democratic congressman and lawyer Samuel Francis Hobbs (born 1887).



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