What is a heat sensor


A sensor or transducer is a component that converts a measured physical quantity or a chemical effect into an analog electrical signal. Physical quantities can be pressure, weight, acceleration, light intensity, temperature, humidity, radiation, sound, magnetic flux, speed and many other physical quantities.

Conversion of physical into electrical quantities

The sensor records the physical quantities and converts them with inductive, capacitive, piezoelectric, magnetic, field strength-controlled, radioactive, charging or photoelectric converters into an electrical voltage, which is set by the sensor in a fixed relation to the input quantity. A sensor therefore scales the signals so that they can be interpreted for further processing. Sensors are divided into mechanical and non-mechanical sensors. The first group includes those for position, inclination, approach, vibration, force, and pressure; and the non-mechanical include temperature sensors, light sensors and humidity sensors, magnetic field sensors, capacitive sensors and chemical sensors. The position measurement can in turn take place via strain gauges, capacitive distance measurement, inductive length measurement or via resistance potentiometers. Proximity measurements can relate to people and security devices and can be carried out using ultrasonic motion detectors, infrared sensors, ultrasonic sensors or camera differential images. And the range of temperature sensors extends from PTC thermistors, thermistors, RTD elements and thermocouples to pyrosensors.

Use of sensors

In optical networks, in CD drives, DVD drives and BD drives, in scanners, digital cameras and camcorders, the optical-electrical conversion takes place with light-sensitive sensors and image sensors. These include photo diodes, APD diodes, PIN diodes, photo transistors, but also CMOS sensors and CCD sensors.

Sensors are used in studios, in process control, in safety devices and telecontrol systems, in optical networks, CD players, motor vehicles, aircraft, production plants and in many other technical, medical and scientific institutions. Small sensors that are only a few millimeters in size are called microsensors.

A distinction is made between wired sensors and wireless sensors. In addition, sensors can be equipped with their own intelligence, for example with a microprocessor or with microsystems. The term smart sensor is used in this context. In terms of design, sensors can be discrete components, but also increasingly in microsystem technology (MST), as MEMS sensors, such as inertia sensors with integrated microcontrollers, radio chips, preamplifiers and digitizers, as they are implemented in analog front ends (AFE) .