Sadism is revenge on being
Sadism and masculinity
Male toughness in the field of tension between natural facts and cultural performance is, first and foremost, recorded under authenticity in "lower classes", although of course cultural or milieu-related configurations are disregarded. The male identity is the more the effect of discursive practices, the more it insists on natural growth. The hegemony of this discourse gives rise to a dangerous, “phallogocentric” practice which, one might say, harbors the evils of this world.
“The idea that masculinity consists in the highest degree of endurance has long been the cover image of a masochism that - as psychology has shown - all too easily comes together with sadism. The vaunted hardness to which one is supposed to be educated means indifference to pain as such. There is not even a very clear distinction made between one's own pain and that of others. Anyone who is tough on himself buys the right to be tough on others and takes revenge for the pain, which he was not allowed to show, which he had to suppress. "(Adorno,Education after Auschwitz, in: Heydorn; Simonsohn; Cock; Hertz (Ed.),On the concept of education in the present, FfM 1967, p. 117)
The vengeance is unconscious. Because the distortions of one's own psyche are disregarded and repressed, the non-verbal as well as verbal communication of the emotions of others cannot be interpreted. A lack of self-perception prevents empathy from being perceived by others (see Goleman,Emotional intelligence, Munich 1996, p. 127). Even the founding fathers of sociology analyzed a widespread “social coldness” under different circumstances, which is mainly attributed to rationalization processes in the field of technology and economics, which are an important part of the ideals of modern - male! - constitutes civil society (see Weber,Protestant ethics and the spirit of capitalism, in the S.,Religion and society, FfM 2010, p. 57). Adorno went so far that he anthropologically founded social coldness.
“A few words about cold are probably allowed. If it were not a basic feature of anthropology, that is, of the nature of people as they actually are in our society; If they were not deeply indifferent to what happens to everyone else except the couple, with whom they are closely connected and possibly through tangible interests, Auschwitz would not have been possible, the people would not have accepted it. "(Adorno, ibid ., P. 120)
Less than a “basic trait of anthropology” could the social cold be characterized as a basic trait of the masculine, although one can, of course, be guilty of perpetuating it at least theoretically. But social facts speak for themselves; 80 percent of men in engineering, for example, contrasts with 32 percent of men in social sciences; 90 percent of all physical injuries are committed by men; more than twice as many women as men are vegetarian and so on. Despite postmodern, “metrosexual” discourse formations, the (latent) sadism of the masculine is reproduced. How is this to be explained - psychoanalytically -? Lacan, as well as Adorno and Horkheimer, looked for explanations independently of one another, referring to Kant and Sade. As is well known, Lacan interprets SadesThe philosophy in the boudoir or the institutes immoraux as a sublime reaction to Kant's moral philosophy (cf.Lacan,Kant with Sade, in the S.,Writings II, Olten 1975, p. 133 ff.). The categorical imperative appresented the cruelty against which it actually turned. Without thatPhilosophical Fragments Knowing, Lacan's statements amount to statements which, as it were, in theDialectic of Enlightenment to be hit. The triumphant calamity, in which, as Adorno and Horkheimer put it, the completely enlightened world shines, results from the impossibility of deriving a fundamental argument against the murder from reason. Sade "shouted this out to all the world" (Adorno; Horkheimer,Dialectic of Enlightenment, Amsterdam 1949, p. 142). Rationality, murder and lust are closely related to Sade. His heroes the120 days from Sodom are as much bureaucrats as they are voluptuous. According to Lacan, the sadists of Sades are Kantians, namely the merciless executors of the in theCritique of Practical Reason drafted moral quasi-natural law. Lacan describes the executor of the Kantian moral law as Sade's executioner. According to Žižek, a distinction must be made between three elements:
“The author of the moral law, the subject who obeys or must obey this law, and the person who executes the law and in whom Lacan recognizes the traits of the Sade executioner or torturer. The problem is not the identity of the author and subject of the law; in fact both are identical with each other, in fact the subject is autonomous in the sense that it obeys his / her own law. The real problem is based on the supplementary figure of the executor / executioner of the law, who intervenes and mediates between the subject as the author of the law and the subject as the subject of the law. "(Žižek,The merciless love, FfM 2001, p. 171)
The executioner bridges the gap between transcendental law and reality. The subject of the moral law is harassed in the name of the specially imposed law - so the analysis. It is not taken into account that the executioner himself violates the moral law, whereby the question arises as to who in turn sanctions this. Yet the inversion of the law is inherent in it. What remains under abstraction is, if you will, the pure will to unconditionally pursue what you want or what you have to want in accordance with the law. The Sadeian imperative “Enjoy!” Is basically just as arbitrary as the demand of moral law formulated by Kant. Both, both the sadists of the120 days from Sodom, as well as the Kantian ethical subject did not justify their ultimate duties and laws. The Duke of Blangis argues, for example:
“[…] It is nature from which I received my inclinations, and I will not confuse her by resisting her when she has given me bad inclinations that have become because it was necessary for her intentions. In her hand I am but a machine that she moves at will, and every crime of mine serves her; The more crimes she advises me, the more she obviously needs, I would be a fool, to oppose her. "(Sade,The 120 days of Sodom, Munich 1974, p. 15)
The Duke paradigmatically stands for an enlightened figure in the sense of Kant, who has his mind "without the guidance of another" (Kant,What is education, Hamburg 1999, p. 20).
“For Sade, enlightenment is not so much a spiritual as a social phenomenon. He drove the dissolution of ties that Nietzsche idealistically believed he could overcome through the higher self, the criticism of solidarity with society, office, family, up to the proclamation of anarchy. His work reveals the mythological character of the principles on which, according to religion, civilization rests: the decalogue, paternal authority, property. It is exactly the reverse of social theory that Le Play spun out after a hundred years. Every single one of the Ten Commandments experiences proof of its nullity before the authority of formal reason. They are proven as ideologies without residue. At Juliette's request, the Pope himself makes the plea in favor of murder. "(Adorno; Horkheimer,Dialectic of Enlightenment, Amsterdam 1949, p. 139)
The "libertines" Sades share their enthusiasm for murder and torture and the apparatus that helps them with the officer of thePenal colony Kafkas. With Kafka, on the other hand, the connection between torture and law, which Lacan and subsequently Žižek analyze with recourse to Kant and Sade, becomes explicit. The execution of the soldier whom the explorer attends is both right and wrong. Law and machine demand adherence to principles. The officer even frees the soldier and puts himself in the machine - the ability to endure becomes, as Adorno writes, also with Kafka the “cover image of masochism”, but the male hardness against himself gets out of control.
“The harrow did not write, it only stabbed, and the bed did not toss the body, but only lifted it, trembling, into the needles. The traveler wanted to intervene, possibly bring the whole thing to a standstill, that wasn't torture as the officer wanted to achieve, that was direct murder. "(Kafka,In the penal colony, in the S.,Complete Works, FfM 2008, p. 841)
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