Who won the French and Indian wars

The French & Indian War

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The conflict between the two most powerful colonial powers in North America, Great Britain and France, intensified during the 18th century. This conflict culminated in the French and Indian wars. In the end, the French possessions were lost and were taken over by the British.

The French and Indian War was the North American scene of the Seven Years' War.

Video documentation

overview

  • Date: 1754-1763
  • Location: North America
  • Start: Battle of Jumonville Glen
  • End: Treaty of Paris

Substantially involved

  • Great Britain & British America with the Iroquois Confederation
  • France & New France with the Wabanaki Confederation

background

  • North American scene of the Seven Years War (1756-1763)
  • Tensions between the colonial powers regarding:
    • religion
    • trade
    • Territories
  • 3 previous French & Indian Wars:
    • King William’s War (1688 - 1697) - status quo ante bellum
    • Queen Anne’s War (1702-1713) - Great Britain receives Nova Scotia, Newfoundland & parts of Hudson Bay from France
    • King George’s War (1744 - 1748) - status quo ante bellum

course

1754 - 1755

  • May 1954: Washington triumphs at the Battle of Jumonville Glen after the French build Fort Duquesne in their mutual interest
  • July 1754: Washington is forced to withdraw after the Battle of Fort Necessity
  • By Jan. 1755: Troops are sent to North America from Great Britain & France
  • From Feb. 1755: Royal Navy blocks French ports & largely prevents French supplies from Europe
  • 1755: French can prevent British offensive plans to take Fort Duquesne, Fort Niagara & Fort St. Frederic
  • June 1755: British take Fort Beausejour

1756 - 1758

  • March 1756: French win Battle of Fort Bull & destroy British supplies
  • Aug 1756: French win the Battle of Oswego & the Battle (massacre) of Fort William Henry
  • June - July 1758: British conquer Louisbourg
  • July 1758: With the victory at the Battle of Carillon, the French are able to stop the British advance on the Canadian mainland
  • Sep - Oct. 1758: The Forbes expedition pushes the French out of the Ohio Valley

1759 - 1763

  • July 1759: British oust French from Fort Carillon, renamed Fort Ticonderoga
  • July 1759: British victory at the Battle of Fort Niagara
  • Sep 1759: Decisive British victory in the Battle of Quebec
  • June - July 1760: British victory in the sea battle of Restigouche prevents the last French attempt to supply the North American colonies with supplies
  • Sep 1760: Governor Vaudreuil surrenders & is able to protect the rights of the French settlers
  • Feb. 1763: Peace Treaty of Paris

consequences

  • Great Britain receives Acadia & New France
  • Spanish Florida surrendered to Great Britain
  • Spain receives formerly French territories west of the Mississippi
  • Many academics have to leave their homes
  • The financial burdens from the Seven Years' War (especially in Europe) are forcing the British state to raise taxes in the colonies as well, which is an essential starting point for the American Revolution
  • French defeat, especially in North America, leads to revanchism against Great Britain & thus also to support the American revolutionaries.